Category Archives: Mario & Luigi

Superstar Saga’s Stateside and Overseas Stats – A Side-by-Side Size-up

Well, this post has certainly been entirely too long in coming, and hearing a credible rumor of a potential upcoming remake / port of Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga for 3DS, this absolutely would be the time to get this out there.

I’ll go ahead and say it; much as I love the first three Paper Mario titles, and have done more than a fair number of playthroughs and mechanics-investigation, Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga is easily my favorite Mario RPG, hands-down (and the rest of the M&L series doesn’t even come close to that title).  May be to some degree due to nostalgia (even though I’d already played PM64 many times by the point I was introduced to MLSS); there’s certainly nothing like playing through Superstar Saga with a sibling on a GameCube Game Boy Player w/ 2 controllers hooked up.  At any case, I’m a huge fan of its simplicity, the fast-paced action as a contrast to PM64 / TTYD’s nearly chess-like calculated strategy, and its brazenness in throwing the Mario brand’s familiar locales and art style to the breeze, while still throwing in a bunch of nods to its roots (and even some fascinating cut content doing the same with other Nintendo properties at the time!).

All that praise aside, the one thing that stood out to me as subpar about Superstar Saga, even on the earliest playthrough, was that it was hardly the best balanced game.  Items give ridiculous amounts of restoration for a casual player (no one in their right minds will have 120 HP upon reaching Little Fungitown), Mario’s Bros. Attacks dwarf Luigi’s in attack power (even with the Bros. at similar POW), the bosses’ EXP curve is all over the place (Cackletta gives 900 EXP at her first appearance, when the previous boss gives 260 and the next at most 300), and the Mush Badges deal downright ludicrous amounts of extra damage per hit, especially if you’re already good at dodging attacks.  Strangely enough, though, a good chunk of these oddities are absent in the Japanese release of Superstar Saga.  Indeed, despite the North American and Japanese versions being released only a week apart (and having been built only slightly longer apart than that), there are a staggering number of balance differences between the releases (to say nothing of the much-needed Heart Blocks in hard-to-leave areas, and a few welcome user interface upgrades; more on that on TMK’s excellent localization changes article).  Presumably the versions diverged and were developed in parallel earlier than that, but whatever the case, let’s see just how many things were altered…

Enemy Stats

Obviously there’s too many changes to note in plain text here, given that there’s over 100 unique enemy targets in the game, each with a dozen or so salient parameters.  The full sheet of stats can be found at the bottom of the post, alongside the stats for items and such; meanwhile, I’ll note some of the more notable changes here:

  • Beanbean Castle Town enemies got their EXP yields shattered compared to the middling amounts in the US version.  Sharpea and Sworm both yield 2 (whereas the latter used to give 14), and the tougher ones yield 7-14 (rather than 16-20).  In addition, Lakipea got a massive SPEED increase, and Tanoombas’ stats were dramatically increased across the board (in exchange for a 20-coin reward).
  • The EXP curve was smoothed considerably in most areas; notably, Bowser’s Castle enemies all yield from 90-130 EXP (adjusting the outliers 80 for Sniper Bill / 40 for Boo), and several enemies (notably “????”) from Gwarhar Lagoon give considerably less.
  • EXP / coin oddities caused by improperly assigning those stats to different forms / parts of the same enemy / boss were mostly fixed.  De-winged Parabeanies and Paratroopeas give more EXP than in their winged form rather than less, Chomp Bros. no longer drop their wallets alongside their Chomps, Mom Piranha yields coins regardless of her final color, and the boss EXP curve is much saner (Cackletta gives 300 instead of the unintended 300×3, Trunkle 500 instead of 1000-1030, and Wendy and Lemmy’s fakes no longer give that odd 1 coin apiece).
  • The Koopalings’ HP and DEF are a lot more variant, and their EXP climbs steadily from 550 to 850 rather than being a flat 800 apiece.
  • Not stat-related per se, but Cackletta’s final form allows you to get the first turn regardless of SPEED, rather than likely killing you outright if your Bros.’ SPEED are both under (the fairly high value of) 120.
  • Thankfully, for the completionists, Piranha Bean no longer has mutually exclusive one-time item drops (pawning off his rare drop on Ludwig instead).

Item / Equipment Stats

Again, a lot of changes, but these are among the most notable:

  • Non-MAX Item restorations were reduced considerably; Mushrooms and Nuts both restore 25 / 45 / 75 HP, and Syrups restore 20 / 35 / 55 BP.  In exchange, the prices for the MAX items (including 1-Up Supers) and Nuts ballooned considerably.
  • Red / Green Peppers’ effectiveness were halved, from a +50% boost to POW / DEF to only +25%, and sell for only 30 (to 60) coins rather than 50 (to 100).
  • Turn-order affecting clothing was made preposterously more expensive; #1 Trousers and Beanstar Pants (which were for some reason made Mario- and Luigi-exclusive), as well as Peachy Jeans and Scandal Jeans were all put in the slowest-growing STACHE discount group, and their base cost is upward of 1,000 coins apiece (for comparison, nothing was sold for over 600 in the US version).
  • A handful of the later “standard” equipment got bumps in price and stats (i.e. Casual Slacks got boosted from +70 DEF / +20 HP to +70 / +30, and General Badge changed from +45 POW / +15 BP to +55 / +12, in exchange for ~doubled prices).
  • If First Strike was considered broken before, apparently Random G was considered worthless; both Harhall’s and Random Slacks got substantial boosts in stats (+60 HP to +100 HP, +60 DEF to +90 DEF).
  • Finally, Mush Badges got a three-fold and much-needed nerf:
    • The added damage from each Mushroom shrunk from ~0.20 / 0.20 / 0.25 / 0.30 to ~0.08 / 0.10 / 0.12 / 0.20 for each normal / Super / Ultra / Max Mushroom, respectively, for a total possible boost of 48 damage per hit rather than 93, most of which comes from expensive Max Mushrooms.
    • The badges no longer have a base POW stat increase, but nominal increases in BP instead.
    • Their prices roughly doubled (probably could have stood to be higher still, but oh, well).

On the note of STACHE, item discount rates were generally slowed across the board in the JP version, both intrinsically in the discount growth functions, and extrinsically from the Bros. getting less STACHE from level-ups (especially after 40; more on that later).

Here’s a comparison table of how many STACHE points are needed to make each of the six STACHE “discount groups” hit a given buy discount in the US version:

Rate DG 0 DG 1 DG 2 DG 3 DG 4 DG 5
6% 0 20 33 36 52 81
10% 13 22 34 38 55 85
15% 14 23 36 40 57 87
20% 16 30 41 43 59 89
25% 19 32 50 46 61 91
30% 21 35 53 51 63 95
35% 25 37 55 56 73 101
40% 29 40 58 68 80 110
45% 40 47 60 81 84 122
50% 53 57 75 106 103 146

And here are the respective rates in the JP version:

Rate DG 0 DG 1 DG 2 DG 3 DG 4 DG 5
6% 0 22 33 45 55 78
10% 15 24 36 49 57 80
15% 19 27 39 53 60 82
20% 22 33 43 58 62 85
25% 26 39 52 63 65 87
30% 31 42 55 70 78 93
35% 37 45 58 79 82 105
40% 47 55 67 89 91 122
45% 65 73 92 113 116 147
50% 90 98 117 138 141 172

Bros.’ Level Up Progression

Not a lot of huge tweaks here; in the JP games, Mario & Luigi both get a BP boost during the early levels, have slightly higher POW / DEF respectively through the mid levels, and (similar to most successive games in the series) get substantially lower stat gains after level 40.  The EXP required for level-ups wasn’t tweaked at all between versions, notably.

Here’s the sum of the Bros.’ natural level-up stats through levels 10, 40, and 99 in the US version:

Lv. 10 20 15 29 24 34 14
Lv. 40 56 28 96 89 93 91
Lv. 99 86 45 181 166 210 193
Lv. 10 25 18 27 27 22 12
Lv. 40 65 37 85 98 70 85
Lv. 99 98 58 163 185 163 210

and in the JP version:

Lv. 10 20 22 30 24 34 14
Lv. 40 56 35 100 87 93 83
Lv. 99 76 50 152 137 147 144
Lv. 10 25 27 27 28 22 14
Lv. 40 67 46 85 106 70 89
Lv. 99 87 62 137 155 125 149

Attack Power

Since I haven’t as of yet done a post on Superstar Saga‘s battle mechanics, here’s the base damage formula used by solo and Bros. attacks:

Solo attacks:
0.4 * (Attacker POW – 1/2 * Defender DEF) * (attack constant K)

Bros. attacks:
0.4 * (Attacker POW – 1/2 * Defender DEF) * (success constant S) * (attack constant K)

(Enemy attacks are calculated the same way as the Bros.’ solo attacks, with an attack constant of 1.)

As it turns out, all of the solo attacks have the exact same constants between versions, but for the sake of completion, I’ll list the basic attacks’ constants here as well (yes, the Hammer constants do vary based on the type of Hammer!):

Attack Normal (Mario) Lucky (Mario) Normal (Luigi) Lucky (Luigi)
Jump 1.20 2.30 1.00 2.00
Normal Hammer 0.90/1.00/1.10 2.10 1.00/1.15/1.30 2.50
Super Hammer 0.80/1.00/1.20 2.10 0.60/1.13/1.36 2.50
Ultra Hammer 0.80/1.05/1.30 2.10 0.80/1.10/1.40 2.50
Hand 1.15 2.20 1.15 2.20
Counterattack 0.50 0.50
First Strike 0.50 0.50

Most of the Bros. Attacks’ base attack constants and success constants were changed between versions.  Rather than list all of the possible constants for all possible Action Command combinations for all attacks (since there are a lot, and they’re all in the doc at the bottom anyway), I’ll just list the (success constant S) * (attack constant K) products for each attack’s perfectly executed form, and whose POW is responsible for dealing the hit.

Here are those constants for the US version:

Attack S * K (Normal) S * K (Advanced) Attacker
Splash Bros. 3.60 3.17 Mario
Swing Bros. 5.76 (max speed) 5.76 + a marginal amount Luigi (M+L on Advanced)
Chopper Bros. 3.66 (for 10 hits) 4.56 (for 5 hits) Mario
Fire Bros. 2.0 (for 8 hits) 3.60 (for 8 hits) Mario
Bounce Bros. 3.00 1.20 apiece Luigi (both on Advanced)
Knockback Bros. 2.88 4.90 (for 5 hits) Mario
Cyclone Bros. 2.16 (for 5 hits) 2.52 (for 6 hits) Mario
Thunder Bros. 0.60 2.10 Luigi

And here are the constants for the JP version:

Attack S * K (Normal) S * K (Advanced) Attacker
Splash Bros. 2.76 2.64 Mario
Swing Bros. 4.80 (max speed) 4.80 + basically 0 Luigi (M+L on Advanced)
Chopper Bros. 3.48 (for 10 hits) 3.96 (for 5 hits) Mario
Fire Bros. 3.08 (for 8 hits) 3.96 (for 8 hits) Mario
Bounce Bros. 2.94 1.56 apiece Luigi (both on Advanced)
Knockback Bros. 2.40 4.08 (for 5 hits) Mario
Cyclone Bros. 2.31 (for 5 hits) 2.90 (for 6 hits) Mario
Thunder Bros. 1.56 2.86 Luigi

In addition to balancing the attacks, the JP fixed a bug where the fewer Action Commands were landed during Thunder Bros., the stronger the stat-dropping effect would be on its target (presumably due to setting the multiplier directly, rather than subtracting it from 1.0). Here are the (outrageously broken) effect strengths in the US version:

First Command Second Command All Commands
Normal DEF x0.0 DEF x0.12 DEF x0.333
Advanced DEF x0.0 DEF x0.275 POW x0.285

Whereas the JP version only drops stats if all action commands are executed properly (x0.7 DEF for the normal form of the attack, and x0.8 POW for the Advanced).

Lucky Chance

Finally, for one brief bit of trivia, the calculations that go into Lucky hit calculation vary considerably between the US and JP versions of the game. The formula for Lucky calculation is as follows:

luckyChance = clamp(LuckyBase + LuckyMult * playerStache / enemyStache, MinChance, MaxChance)

where the enemy’s STACHE is determined by the average of the Bros.’ natural STACHE stats at its own level, and LuckyBase, LuckyMult, MinChance, and MaxChance are constants that depend on how close the enemy and player levels are (one set for if the levels are within 10% of each other, another for less than 25% apart, and a third for more than 25% apart).

The values for those constants in the US version are as follows:

Level Difference LuckyBase LuckyMult MinChance MaxChance
Within 10% 0% 10% 6% 15%
10-25% Apart 0% 12% 10% 20%
25%+ Apart 0% 6% 4% 10%

and the values for those constants in the JP version:

Level Difference LuckyBase LuckyMult MinChance MaxChance
Within 10% -0.83% 9.17% 6% 22%
10-25% Apart -1.54% 8.46% 10% 30%
25%+ Apart -1.54% 8.46% 4% 15%

In addition, wearing a badge with the “Lucky Attack” effect increases chances of a Lucky hit by a flat 15% after the previous calculations (to a max of 25% in the US version and 40% in the JP).  But in short, the JP version has a higher cap on Lucky chances, but scales more evenly regardless of the level difference.

Also as a side note, I haven’t looked into it particularly deeply, but I suspect the JP version’s formula implementation has the potential to overflow to particularly low Lucky chances if the attacking bro’s STACHE stat is a bit more than 128 (or 128 + a multiple of 256) above the opposing enemy’s. Not likely to occur without a bunch of StarBeans drink farming, at any rate.


Well, that pretty much sums up the stat-based changes between the US and JP releases of Superstar Saga. Given that most of the balance changes in the latter were in my opinion for the better, I’m hoping that the alleged Superstar Saga remake ends up basing its stats off of that version. We’ll have to see, anyway.

You can find a spreadsheet of all the enemy stats, item stats, attack constants, and level-up progressions in both versions of the game here. Fingers crossed that we get a bunch more M&L:SS stuff to look at in an upcoming release!

Bowser’s Inside Story Equipment details…

What the title says.  At any rate, some terms to make clear before explaining everything.  If an effect rounds “down”, everything after the decimal point is cut off; if “up”, it’s the same as down, but adding 1 if the decimal was non-0; if “5/4”, standard nearest rounding is used (0.5 or more rounds up, less rounds down).  If equipment stacks “additively”, then their modifiers are added together if worn together; e.g. +20% and +30% additively stacked = 50% increase.  If it stacks “multiplicatively”, though, the modifiers are multiplied by each other; e.g. +20% and +30% multiplicatively stacked = (1.20)*(1.30)=1.56 = 56% increase.

Note in particular that all purely stat-boosting gear stacks multiplicatively with other such gear, as well as equipment that increases base stats by set amounts. For example, 120 base POW + D-Star Wear (80 POW) + DX POW Gloves (x1.2) + DX POW Boots (x1.2) = (120 + 80)*1.2*1.2 = 288 POW.

Sell prices included for completeness; if the equipment can be bought, its base price is always four times as much, rounded to the nearest multiple of 5.

Equipment Name Equipment Effect Sell Price
Thin Wear +5 DEF 1
Picnic Wear +15 DEF 7
Leisure Wear +30 DEF 50
Fighter Wear +5 POW, 25 DEF 37
Heart Wear +10 Max HP, 80 DEF 450
Brawny Wear +10 POW, 45 DEF 300
Grown-Up Wear +50 DEF, 10 SPEED, 10 STACHE 275
Koopa Wear +40 DEF 125
Hero Wear +60 DEF 375
Balm Wear +90 DEF 500
Muscle Wear +20 POW, 65 DEF 450
Master Wear +20 Max SP, 140 DEF, special attack power x1.25 (Does not stack with other special attack boosts) 1
King Wear +100 DEF 625
Star Wear +20 Max HP, 10 Max SP, 120 DEF 750
D-Star Wear +80 POW 1
A-OK Wear +30 Max HP, 10 Max SP, 20 POW, 150 DEF, 20 SPEED & 20 STACHE, Cures status ailments 5000
Rental Wear No effect (not used in-game) 1
HP Socks x1.2 Max HP 75
Deluxe HP Socks x1.3 Max HP 500
SP Socks x1.2 Max SP 125
DX SP Socks x1.3 Max SP 750
Hustle Socks Lets you flee battles without losing coins. 75
Coin Socks 1.5x coins from enemies if the wearer takes no damage. 250
Starched Socks x1.1 DEF 62
Gumption Socks Revives you at 1/2 of max HP after 1 turn if KO’ed, can take effect multiple times in a battle. 2500
Bro Socks Doubles the wearer’s DEF if holding a fallen bro. 1
Gall Socks Makes enemies 50% more likely to attack the wearer. 12
Rugged Socks x1.2 DEF 300
EXP Socks 1.3x EXP from enemies for the wearer if he takes no damage. 375
No-touch Socks Nullifies all status ailments. 100
Nurse Socks Restores 4 HP per turn. 100
Doctor Socks Restores 10 HP per turn. 1000
Special Socks Restores 1 SP per turn. 150
Surprising Socks Restores 3 SP per turn. 1500
Guardian Socks Restores 8 HP and 2 SP per turn. 2500
POW Gloves x1.1 POW 100
DX POW Gloves x1.2 POW 3750
Mushroom Gloves Randomly uses Mushrooms before you move on occasion. 1000
Special Gloves x1.15 Special attack power (does not stack with Master Wear) 1250
Heavy Gloves x1.2 Hammer attack power 125
Delicious Gloves Doubles item restoration amounts, including 1-up Mushrooms. 500
Flower Gloves x1.2 Fire Flower attack power (Does stack additively with Master Wear, etc.) 200
Bye-Bye Gloves Gives the wearer’s hammer a chance of OHKO’ing an enemy. 625
Softener Gloves Presumably due to a coding error, the wearer’s hammer has a chance of RAISING enemy DEF by 25%. 250
Item Gloves Hammering a foe may make it drop an item; you can do this multiple times per enemy. 150
Siphon Gloves Makes hammer attacks restore a tenth of the wearer’s max SP. 1
Dent Gloves Hammer First Strikes may KO foes. 1250
POW Boots x1.1 POW 200
DX POW Boots x1.2 POW 5000
Tip-Top Boots Gives you an extra 30% POW while at max HP. 750
Special Boots x1.1 special attack power (does not stack w/Master Wear) 750
Heavy Boots x1.2 Solo jump attack power 150
Daredevil Boots x2 POW, but KO’ed in one hit; Big Shell and such do not work with these equipped. 500
Shell Boots x1.2 Green Shell attack power (stacks additively w/Master Wear, etc.) 150
Dizzy Boots Jump attacks may inflict “Dizzy” status. 375
Shroob Boots Jump attacks might cut enemy POW in half. 500
Coin Boots Stomping an enemy may produce coins; can be used multiple times per enemy. 250
Siphon Boots Every jump attack restores 5% of your max HP. 250
Big Stomp Boots Jump first strikes do 30% more damage. 750
Happy Charm Makes Lucky attacks 50% more common. 125
Luck Charm Makes Lucky attacks twice as common. 500
Thrift Charm 60% SP cost for a random special attack, rounded 5/4. 250
Budget Charm 70% SP for special attacks, rounded 5/4. 375
Tight Belt 50% SP for special attacks, rounded 5/4. 2500
Advice Patch Raises a suggested special attack’s power by 30%, Does stack additively with Master Wear, etc. 1
Luxury Patch Raises SP attacks’ attack power by 20% and cost by 50%, rounded 5/4. Does not stack with Master Wear, et al.; the most powerful form takes precedence. 500
Heroic Patch Raises SP attacks’ attack power by 30% and cost by 100%, see above. 750
Small Shell Nullifies damage once per battle. Does not work with Daredevil Boots. 500
Big Shell Nullifies damage three times per battle. Does not work with Daredevil Boots. 1750
Giant Shell Nullifies any damage that would do less than 20% of your max HP’s worth of damage. 750
KO Shell Nullifies damage while the wearer has “Super Strike” status. 1000
Gold Ring No effect. 200
Gold Crown No effect. 250
Lazy Scarf Triples DEF if HP is below 25% of its max. 375
Mushroom Stone Makes foes only drop Mushrooms. Unlike Mushwin Pants of Superstar Saga, does not guarantee a Mushroom drop. 250
POW Mush Jam Gives POW-Up status (+20%) after eating any type of Mushroom. 1000
DEF Mush Jam Gives DEF-Up status (+30%) after eating any type of Mushroom. 200
Treasure Specs Doubles enemies’ item drop rate. 750
Vengeance Cape Every hit taken increases POW by 5%, to a maximum of 30%. 625
Challenge Medal Gives you 50% more coins from enemies, but in exchange, increases their HP and DEF by 50%, and their POW by 150%. 1
Shabby Shell +20 DEF 7
Special Shell +40 DEF 50
Safety Shell +60 DEF 100
Judge Shell +75 DEF 200
Rock Shell +90 DEF 250
Armored Shell +130 DEF 400
Rampage Shell +20 POW, 100 DEF 350
Dream Shell +220 DEF 600
Wicked Shell +30 POW, 180 DEF 1125
Ironclad Shell +300 DEF 1
Block Ring x1.3 DEF 1
King Shell +20 Max SP, 20 POW, 260 DEF, x1.3 punch attack power, does not stack with like effects. 1
Power Band x1.1 POW 250
Power Band + x1.2 POW 2500
Minion Band Restores 2 SP per turn. 500
Minion Band SP Restores 4 SP per turn. 2500
Iron Fist Band x1.2 punch attack power, does not stack with like effects. 100
Vampire Band Every punch attack restores 8% of max HP. 500
Stamina Band Gives POW-Up status (+15%) after eating any type of Drumstick. 1250
Hunter Band Each enemy KO’d raises POW by 10%, to a max of 30%. 625
Lucky Band Doubles the chance of getting a Lucky attack. 50
Block Band x1.2 DEF 1
Fury Band x2.4 POW when furious, rather than the normal x2. 1
Power Fangs x1.1 POW 500
Power Fangs X x1.2 POW 5000
Special Fangs x1.2 Max SP 250
Special Fangs X x1.4 Max SP 1250
Red-hot Fangs x1.2 flame attack power 125
Burning Fangs Doubles the chance of flames causing Burn status 375
Fury Fangs Raises Fury chance by either 50% or 150%, description is vague. 500
Bone Fangs Gives DEF-Up status (+30%) after eating any type of Drumstick. 1
Intruder Fangs Allows you to choose two actions every turn. 1
Block Fangs x1.2 DEF 1
Flashy Fangs Nothing 1000
Cheap Ring Cuts a random special attack’s SP cost by 30% every turn, rounded 5/4. 150
Economy Ring Cuts all SP costs by 50%, rounded 5/4. 2500
Heroic Ring Doubles SP cost, and raises SP attack power 30%. 750
Glutton Ring Lets you eat two drumsticks at once. 375
Excellent Ring Every Excellent attack will restore 10% of your max SP. 500
Drumstick Ring Randomly uses a drumstick from your inventory before your turn. 250
Peace Ring Restores 15 HP per turn. 500
Fill-up Ring Restores 4 SP per turn.  Overrules Minion Bands, for whatever reason. 750
Restore Ring Restores 10 HP and 3 SP per turn, does stack with Minion Bands. 1250
Fast Cash Ring Doubles coin drops from foes KO’ed in the field. 200
Treasure Ring Doubles Item drop rate. 1
Safety Ring x1.2 Max HP 250
Hard Ring x1.2 DEF 100
Rental Shell No effect, not used in-game. 1

Finally, I’ll go over how the Bros. Badges work, and how much it takes to fill those bars.

First of all, every attack restores the same number of units regardless of what rank the Bros. receive on a move, so long as it’s at least as good as the badge Luigi has equipped; however, if a bro misses a command short of an “Excellent” while wearing the Excellent!! Badge, his side of the bar will empty (if all possible enemies are killed before reaching “Excellent”, the bar will not empty, though).  Also of note, Excellent!! bars always fill up just as fast as Excellent!, no faster.  The amounts each attack fills the bar are as follows:

  • Solo Jump, Hammer commands – 20 units
  • Green Shell, Fire Flower – 25 units
  • Yoo Hoo Cannon, Snack Basket, Magic Window – 35 units
  • Koopa Spring, Super Bouncer, Mighty Meteor, Spin Pipe, Falling Star – 45 units

Mushroom Badge – Restores the Bros.’ HP.

  • Good Badge: Restores 20% of max HP, 240 units
  • Great Badge: Restores 30% of max HP, 180 units
  • Excellent! Badge: Restores half of max HP and cures status ailments, 160 units
  • Excellent!! Badge: Restores all HP and cures status ailments, 160 units

Powerful Badge – Gives the Bros. “Super Strike” status, making their next attack much more potent.

  • Good Badge: Makes the next attack ~20% (3/16) stronger, 220 units
  • Great Badge: Makes the next attack 50% stronger, 160 units
  • Excellent! Badge: Makes the next attack twice as strong, 140 units
  • Excellent!! Badge: Makes the next attack four times as strong, 140 units

Bonus Badge – Increases the after-battle rewards for defeating enemies.

  • Good Badge: x1.2 coins, 220 units
  • Great Badge: x1.4 coins, 160 units
  • Excellent! Badge: x1.6 coins & x1.2 EXP, 140 units
  • Excellent!! Badge: x2.0 coins & x1.5 EXP, 140 units

Bro Badge – Restores the Bros.’ SP.

  • Good Badge: Restores 20% of max SP, 260 units
  • Great Badge: Restores 30% of max SP, 200 units
  • Excellent! Badge: Restores 50% of max SP, 180 units
  • Excellent!! Badge: Restores all SP, 180 units

This pretty much wraps up the important info for Bowser’s Inside Story; I may do some short posts on it in the future, however.

The Inside Story on M+L 3’s enemy stats + damage calculation.

Since it was requested a while back in response to one of my older posts, I’m going to share some pretty much complete information on what goes into Bowser’s Inside Story’s damage calculations.

As it turns out, the basic formula’s pretty simple, and identical to that of Partners in Time:

Damage Dealt = (Attacker POW)*(Attacker Level)/(Defender DEF) * (Attack Constant).
(Incidentally, Lucky and Critical hits are both worth 1.5x a normal attack.)

Thus, unlike in Superstar Saga, an level-2 Mario with a ton of Power Beans still can’t attack worth anything on late-game bosses, due to the inherently low multiplier from his level. Furthermore, power effectively follows a quadratic formula, which when offset by a linear defense increase, results in a roughly linear increase in power against enemies at your level (whereas you’ll much more rapidly gain an edge on weaker enemies).

At any rate, this formula doesn’t mean squat without knowing what Attack Constants are (at least roughly), and without knowing what the enemy stats are (It’s surprising how many correct stat sheets are out in the aether, but I haven’t seen one that lists enemy levels).

Here’s a quick comparison and overview of the players’ Attack Constants.

Mario & Luigi’s Attacks

Again unlike in Superstar Saga, neither bro has any advantage over the other in base effectiveness of moves, i.e. they’re exactly the same strength given identical POW and level. Here are the values of the common attacks:

Jump Hammer
No Good 0.50 0.60
OK 1.00 1.12-1.47
Good 1.00 + 0.60 1.50-1.68
Great 1.00 + 0.80 1.70-1.88
Excellent 1.00 + 1.10 2.12-2.20
Counterattack 1.10 1.00
First Strike 0.50 0.50

Thus, Hammer attacks have a slight edge on attack power overall, but are a bit more variable, and considerably harder to max.  The special attacks have more varied and convoluted means of calculation for their Attack Constants, so I’ll describe them below.  It’s important to note that some of these are based on Mario’s attack power, and some on Luigi’s, so I’ll note which is used for each attack (M = Mario, L = Luigi, M/L = Separate or Average, you figure it out).

  • Green Shell – 0.375 per hit, M/L, max of 10 hits. Pretty straightforward, a fair increase in power from a standard attack.
  • Fire Flower – 0.066 per hit, M/L. Kind of hard to estimate without knowing how fast a button masher you are. Has that all-important elemental aspect, of course.
  • Jump Helmet – Hoo boy. First of all, if you hit just the last command, it’s worth 2.875, and if you mess that up, it’s 0.30 (Missing the spring entirely gives you a big fat 0, of course).  Beyond that, every perfectly centered bounce adds an additional 0.586; hitting off-center will add only 60% of that, and hitting the edge will add a mere 40%.  Regardless of AC, Mario’s power is what’s used.
  • Yoo Who Cannon – 0.76 for hit, 0.25 for flub, M/L.  Around three jumps’ worth of damage if executed properly.
  • Super Bouncer – 0.92 with B, 0.30 without.  Max of eight hits, topping the possible total at slightly above YWC’s.  This one uses the user’s power, although strangely enough only Luigi can get Lucky hits with it (thanks, avengah!)
  • Spin Pipe – 1.10 with button, 0.35 elsewise, M/L, eight hits max.  Another slight step up in damage, but otherwise, it’s again pretty much the same.
  • Snack Basket – Hoooo boy.  This one’s effectively calculated in three parts:
    • First of all, the initial multiplier is determined by how many of the twenty snacks are grabbed; 8-13 nets you 0.50, 14-17 gives you 0.75, and 18+, 1.00.
    • Next, that value’s multiplied by another multiplier determined by how many times you hit “A” in the button-mashing segment; this value is (1 + 3/64*presses).
    • Finally, how high Luigi is when you press “B” dictates the third multiplier; 0.8 for a failure, up to 2.0 at the top (slightly higher if you can press it just before he starts floating).

    Thus, if you press the “A” button 48 times in the window, catch all the snacks, and press the button at the top, you’ll get a multiplier of 1*(1 + 48/64)*2 = 3.5.  I don’t know if that’s reasonable, again, since button-mashing’s hard to estimate.  In any case, this is the only move that uses only Luigi’s multiplier.

  • Mighty Meteor – 1.20 for a hit, 1.40 for the first flash, 1.60 for the second; M/L, maximum of 5.  Thus, this doesn’t have as much power as the Spin Pipe, but you do get a good item for your efforts, and it can inflict the POW-Down status, cutting away a fourth of the target’s POW for a while.
  • Magic Window – 0.54 per successful hit, 0.18 for a flub, M/L.  If they hit together, it counts as a 0.54 (0.18)-M and 0.54 (0.18)-L hit added together.
  • Falling Star – 4.00 for the initial star hit, 3.20 for each cluster of eight, and 0.344 for any strays left over, all averaged between Mario and Luigi.  That first hit can be pretty devastating with a “Super Strike” active, and the attack can cause DEF-Down, reducing enemy DEF by a sixth.

Bowser’s Attacks

Bowser’s attack constants are roughly on the same scale as the Bros.’, but the game adds 8 to his actual level for damage calculation purposes.  Here are the ones for his standard attacks:

Punch Fire
No Good 1.00 0.30
OK 1.45-1.66 0.60
Good 1.67-1.80 OK + 0.30
Great 1.81-1.91 Good + 0.20
Excellent 2.20 Great + 0.20+0.10
Counterattack 1.00
First Strike 0.55 0.55

It’s evident that punches are quite a bit more powerful, so it really comes down to how many enemies there are to hit, and whether the Burn / Critical effects might be useful.  And here are his specials’ Attack Constants:

  • Goomba Storm – 0.27 per burning Goomba, 0.06 per normal, 20 hits total.  This maxes out at a little over twice a normal punch’s power.
  • Shy Guy Squad – Kind of hard to pin down, as there’s no good way to tell the theoretical maximum.  A “Good” will get roughly 3.2+, a “Great”, 4.0+, and an “Excellent”, 5.1+, though.
  • Koopa Corps – 0.23 per hit.  Again, estimating the maximum’s kind of hard, but it’s probably at least 20 hits.
  • Bob-omb Blitz – 1.00 per hit, 6 maximum.  Slightly more damage than Goomba Storm, considerably easier, can inflict Dizzy, and the damage can be distributed as you see fit.
  • Magikoopa Mob – 0.32 for perfect aim, 0.10 for a non-perfect, 24 hits maximum. Maxes out at ~7.6.
  • Broggy Bonker – An “Excellent” scores 1.20+2.00+1.20+(0.33*15), for a grand total of a whopping 9.20.  A “Great” gets a mere 1.20+1.20, and “OK”/”Good” a pathetic 1.20.

Also, this isn’t really useful information, but in the final battle (no spoilers), Bowser’s punch at the end has an AC of 2.50/3.50 for the first three hits, and 6.00 for the last.

As for enemy Attack Constants, most attacks have 1.5-2.5, with 2.0 being the value for a great majority; some powerful single-hit attacks can get up to 3 or 4, and multi-hits can get down to 1.0 or so.

With all that out there, here’s a link to an spreadsheet containing all of Bowser’s Inside Story’s enemy stats:
Bowser’s Inside Story Stats

(Unlike the previous games, I don’t think the Japanese version’s stats are any different.)

This wraps up damage calculation in Bowser’s Inside Story, but be sure to stay tuned for an overview of the equipment of the game in the near future, putting to rest some perpetuated rumors, clearing up some stuff the game didn’t bother to tell you or just plain got WRONG in the descriptions.

The History of Mario + Luigi: Superstar Saga+.

If you follow my YouTube channel, “llproductions2006“, you might be familiar with my Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga, “Superstar Saga+”. I thought it might be interesting to recount some of the history and logic behind the hack.

For starters, I first found out the extent to which Superstar Saga could be hacked when sometime back in 2009, I saw that two guys from the “Yoshi’s Lighthouse” forums, Salanewt and Charleysdrpepper, had found the “lost sprites” from the scrapped StarBeans Café cutscenes. (If you’re not familiar with these, basically, rather than E. Gadd showing up and giving the Mario Bros. various special items, various other Nintendo characters were supposed to make appearances. Check out The Mushroom Kingdom’s page here for more info.)

It turned out that they had also located a bunch of enemy data, map data, level-up data, and so forth; pretty extensive leads on stuff at the least. After helping them figure out what various bits of data were for a while (Stache Discount Groups for items and the like), I realized there was enough knowledge out there to completely rebalance the stats in the game. Now don’t get me wrong, I’m a massive fan of Superstar Saga and can hardly fault it for anything. However, with some moves (*cough* Chopper Bros.) and equipment (*cough* Mush Badges) being what they are in the original, I can’t deny they needed a fixer-upper.

So in May 2011, having familarized myself with working with the fairly basic Yoshi Magic editor, and having figured out or asked for the locations of a number of other things, I started work on “Superstar Saga+”. Seeing as I was planning on dramatically scaling up the stats and re-working them from the ground up, I gave it a working tagline of “Bigger, Better, BALANCED.” (This got scrapped at literally the last second; those words were supposed to appear on the last three chords in my release video, rather than “Thanks for watching!”.) To make this happen properly was going to be no small task; however, I had a pretty good idea of how to handle it.

The first thing I did was decide the stat distributions at level-ups, so I’d be able to predict Mario and Luigi’s stats fairly accurately at any level, and base the enemy stats around them. I decided that Mario and Luigi would ideally finish the game at level 50, so that anyone that felt like maxing their level would have an easier time doing so. (I also put a cool easter egg in for anyone who bothered to do that; the level-up stats get outrageously high in the 90s, and at level 99, all the stats increase by 99!) All the stats hit about 300-350 at level 50, excepting HP, which is around 400, and BP, which is somewhere around 200. Part of the reason for that massive discrepancy is that I thought originally that the BP cost for attacks couldn’t exceed 10 or 15; as it turns out, this wasn’t the case, but I didn’t find that out until most of the stat selection was complete.  Besides, special points have always been one of the lower stats in the Mario RPGs.  As in the original Superstar Saga, Mario’s POW and STACHE are a fair bit higher, and is SPEED is considerably more so; conversely, Luigi gets a sizable HP advantage, and his BP and DEF are a bit ahead as well. After testing a quick level-to-max with a 65,535-EXP-from-battles code to see how the bonuses would affect the totals (considerably more so than I thought), I wrote out an Excel sheet of expected stats at every level.

With that out of the way, I edited all the not-enemy-stats stuff next. BP costs and Stache Discounts were fairly easy to deal with (and while I was editing Bros. Attack stuff, I tweaked how many Great!’s you needed for Advanced commands, and made Luigi do the Advance! animation on ALL his attacks, not just Chopper Bros.) Item editing wasn’t too difficult either, though I had to drastically re-balance the 1-up Mushrooms; initially I’d decided I wanted not to have any full healers, but my first attempt made the 1-ups far too weak, to the point where Mario often wouldn’t survive a single hit after being revived.  “Max” items were replaced by the Boost Shrooms, which act like weaker forms of the StarBeans drinks, and weaker but purchasable Peppers. Similarly, Nuts were replaced by an additional 1-up Mushroom variety, and Bros. forms of Mushrooms and Syrups. You can’t use these on the overworld, but seeing as they’re fairly expensive per worth in healing, I figured no one would need to. A couple other item tweaks were necessitated, like changing the respective dialogue about receiving them from Monty Moles and such (sadly not the sound effects or pictures; that takes scripting I wasn’t familiar with), and re-ordering what order they appear in shops so the Bros. items and Boost Shrooms appeared last (Ultra Mushrooms are still unique to Little Fungitown, and are actually the highest-healing variety now anyway). I also re-wrote all the item and equipment text, along with their descriptions, using only a handful of snippets the original game’s names and text.  Notably, a couple of equipment slots I didn’t bother using contain items like the “Beta Badge” and “Hacker Slacks”, that have worthless stats and berate whomever used “all item” cheat codes to get them.

On that note, equipment editing was an interesting process; I decided to make the equipment go up to a max of around 100 in the respective stats, and I tried to keep the distribution of the various special statuses about the same as in the original game. The astute player might notice the similarity of the naming scheme for the overalls to that of the original game; Mario’s are always “Pants”, and Luigi’s, “Jeans”. Rather than have a bunch of random enemies having “rare drops” that weren’t even as good as the items in shops when you first encounter them, I decided that only two very powerful items, the Secret Slacks and Secret Badge, could be obtained from normal enemies. These items are obtainable as soon as you get Swing Bros. Advanced, and have high amounts of HP and BP with the DEF- and POW-Up statuses, respectively (if you’re aware of a certain really hard-to-get standard-enemy-dropped badge in the original game, you can get the Secret Badge the same way in SS+). The two flavors of Oho Jee each have their own drop as well, both with terrifically terrible puns in their names. As for the rest of the slots, I made every boss from Mom Piranha afterwards drop a piece of equipment. In particular, the Koopa Kids all give 100-POW/DEF items with the some of the best statuses, and Fawful gives one of the only two badges with the “Mushroom Force” effect (the other is an even more unlikely find). I was especially careful to make it difficult to get these without trying; the 2nd “rare” item drop slot is used for these items at first, but once you can get the Gameboy Horror SP, which gives you the 2nd-slot item guaranteed, it switches to a 1/31-shot 1st-slot item. This does introduce a really slight chance of a random drop, but it’s better than letting people get those rare items the “easy” way. The most elusive piece of equipment is the Piranha Badge, which is the 2nd-slot drop for Piranha Bean.  (Those of you who remember the Piranha Suit should see where this is going.)  This gives you practically infinite use of Bros. Attacks in the late-game, but there’s a catch: you have to get literally ALL 35 Hoo Beans and the vast majority of the Chuckle Beans up through that point in the game (since you need the Game Boy Horror to get the drop, as you fight him as Luigi alone, and can’t use Swing Bros.)

And that transitions into the area of the hack where I probably put the most effort into perfecting, at least as much as enemy stats – item blocks. I wanted to make that Piranha Badge impossible to get if you aren’t willing to put the effort in to search out those Hoo Beans. Thus, I made every visible Hoo Bean block contain something else (usually a Hee Bean), and every “obvious” Chuckle Bean spot contain a Woo Bean instead (excepting the five in the tutorial; those are scripted to always be Chuckle Beans). To make up for the loss of a ton of Hoo Beans, I turned a couple of formerly visible blocks invisible instead, and I replaced a few of the subtler Chuckle Bean spots with Hoo Beans as well; most of those can be seen in my aforementioned release video. (If you’re not familiar with the locations of the original game’s Hoo Bean blocks, check out this video.)  There are indeed only 35 attainable before fighting the Piranha Bean boss; in retrospect, I should have made it 36 in case someone missed the one in the path to Guffawha Ruins, as it can be permanently missed.  In looking at the block data, I was astounded at how many hidden Chuckle Beans I never would have guessed existed. Here’s a picture of some of the more interesting repeat-offending Chuckle Bean locations; if you see a feature like this, there’s a good chance there’s a Chuckle Bean nearby.  In addition to all these bean shenanigans, I changed some items in the blocks so you wouldn’t be getting a bunch of Boost Shrooms from them, and made the coin blocks give a bit more moolah than in the original. In addition, all the item blocks are red, and the Hee Bean blocks green, instead of the usual yellow; the color has nothing to do with who can hit them.

After all these item-y tweaks, which took a far longer time than you would think (or I, for that matter), I finally got to using the Bros.’ level-up data to pinpoint stats for the enemies. After a painstaking round-up of how many times every battle arrangement appears in a single playthrough (this took 10+ hours alone), I was able to set the enemy EXP values to make the Bros. hit level 50 right at the endgame. And they scale so exponentially, you’ll hit almost exactly that even if you fight a bunch of extra enemies or skip a lot of battles (though with the higher enemy stats, that’s not at all advisable anyway). I did curb how much the level EXP requirements increase, though; hitting level 50 gets you about 30% of the way to level 99, rather than about 10% in the original game. Once I had that taken care of, I hand-selected every enemy stat using this ultra-complicated Excel sheet, which I unfortunately seem to have lost since then; I selected HP and DEF to make them take about 4-6 jumps to kill, and POW to do a specific percentage of the Bros.’ HP in damage, assuming the appropriate level (some of the powerful enemies do 30+%, whereas the average falls in the low-20% range; some bosses’ attacks hit around 50%), and I selected appropriate SPEED values to make the desired brother go first, or none at all, based on the type of enemy.  Again, I lost the master sheet that I did most of these calculations with, but these shots should give you some idea of how crazy it was: (1) (2) (3)  A special case I considered was the Gold Beanie; they have a massive 40 HP, you can’t damage them more than 1 health per hit (2 with Great Force), and they’ll absorb elemental damage. To top it off, they solidly one-hit KO you if you mis-time a guard, regardless of your stats. But if you can land a winning blow, they can drop either Boost Shrooms DX, or an ultra-rare piece of equipment that has 100 DEF, and can be sold for an absolutely ludicrous number of coins.

After all this, a test playthrough or two, and a few other minor changes (most notably, the shops and Pipe House play an awesome music track not in the original game), and after a total of probably 150+ hours of work, I released the original version of the hack as an IPS patch in late July 2011, giving myself a virtual pat on the back. However, this original version had a lot of shortcomings. Even ignoring the occasional sound/graphic mismatch due to changed items (which are largely still there in the current version, unfortunately), there were a number of things that went pretty firmly against my “Bigger, Better, BALANCED” promises, and that eluded me on those first couple of playthroughs.

Most notably, and this was more a flaw in the original game than anything, the POW/DEF status effects are game-breaking one way or the other. POW/DEF-Dn renders enemies practically worthless (POW-Dn almost certainly knocks their attack power down to 1), and POW/DEF-Up gave the Bros. way more of a boost than it should. In fact, most of the status effects in the game, equipment-induced or otherwise, were made either too weak or too powerful. Most of these changes were fixed in my most recent patch, version 1.3, and are as follows:

– Firstly, BP was far too strongly affected by the stat-boosting items and level-up bonus wheel, so I increased their values to about on par with the other stats (and bumped up the Bros. Attack costs and Syrup restorations accordingly).
– Poison statuses deal about double the damage they did originally, due to the Bros.’ higher HP values.
– HP Auto-Gain restores 10 HP, and BP Auto-Gain restores 5, rather than the worthless 2 that was low even by the original game’s standards.
– POW/DEF-boosting badges and items had their boosts cut in half
– Most importantly, Thunder Bros.’s POW/DEF-Dn effects were reduced dramatically; it turns out that the original game made enemies’ DEF reduce to 33% of its normal value, and POW to under 30%! I did, however, leave in the effects of a little-known glitch that allows you to drop enemy DEF to 0 (no such luck for POW, thank goodness).

I also have changed a few other aesthetic/playability things since the original build; as a cue from EarthBound’s mega-levelups on multiples of 4, levelups to multiples of 5 have their effects increased substantially (and the rest decreased slightly to average it out). Also, the EXP values of enemies from the halfway point of the game on were increased, since I assumed you’d have the Bonus Ring earlier than I should have when balancing stats, seeing as it’s now the sixth Pin item rather than the second. I also added a 1-up Mushroom or two in the early part of the game, since they’re hard to come by before Hoohoo Mountain.

And that’s pretty much the story; try the patch out if you’re a fan, or just want a slightly less forgiving introduction to the game.